A thorough understanding of the basic modes of Heat Transfer is a fundamental requirement for most courses in Science and Engineering. The P.A.Hilton Ltd Heat Transfer range is designed to teach all the fundamental principles of Heat Transfer and Thermodynamics as well as units for more advanced studies.
Many of the ranges have a common instrumentation and service unit with a series of optional add-on modules available, designed for specific applications. This modular approach gives maximum flexibility to educational establishments to align their laboratory equipment to curriculum requirements and budgets.
Data Acquisition Upgrades are available for the vast majority of units within the Heat Transfer range, allowing the key experimental parameters to be captured using the Universal Data Acquisition software.
The demonstration of Boyle’s Law (pV = Constant) is one of the fundamental experiments for student chemists, physicists and engineers of all disciplines.
A bench mounted panel with integral electrical console providing services for any of the optional heat exchangers in the range. Temperature controlled hot water is provided and the hot and cold flow is controlled and measured using variable area flowmeters. The optional heat exchangers are connected using non-drip, self sealing couplings.
A clear acrylic tube containing cold water surrounds an inner stainless steel tube in which the hot water flows.
Multiple brazed stainless steel plates arranged for multi-pass operation with passes in series give a total heat transfer area of approximately 24000mm2. Four thermocouples measure hot and cold fluid entry and exit temperatures.
A thick walled glass shell with 2 baffles contains cold water, which passes over 7 stainless steel tubes through which hot water flows. Tube bundle length of 205mm giving total heat transfer area of approximately 24000 mm2.
A vessel with a clear top has a glass outer jacket. Hot water may pass through this or through a heat transfer coil inside the vessel to provide external or internal heating.
An extended version of the H102A Concentric Tube Heat Exchanger with 3 pairs of intermediate points giving 10 thermocouples in total.
An extended version of the H102B Plate Heat Exchanger with a total of 6 thermocouples.
In conjunction with the H102B this allows investigation of the effects of increased heat transfer area.
This is a highly advanced concentric tube heat exchanger with hot water flowing through the central tube while cooling water flows through the annular space.
This allows advanced students to investigate the Nusselt, Reynolds, Prandtl relationship Nu = k Rea Prb.
An example of an industrial coiled concentric tube heat exchanger with turbulence enhancing tubes. The heat exchanger is fully instrumented using the Heat Exchanger Service Unit H102 with thermocouples on the inlet and outlet of both the hot and cold streams.
Recycling can be used in many engineering applications and is important when applied to thermodynamic processes as it can result in reduced energy requirements.
Vapour may condense onto a cooled surface in two distinct modes known as filmwise and dropwise. For the same temperature difference between the vapour and the surface, dropwise condensation is several more times effective than filmwise. However it involves special surface finishes or treatment in order to maintain dropwise condensation and for this reason, though desirable, it seldom occurs in real plant operation.
A small water to air heat exchanger, illustrating the use of extended surfaces (fins) as a means of improving the heat transfer to gases(in this case air). A fan, powered from the H102 unit allows air to be heated by hot water from the H102 unit.
The Hilton H112 Heat Transfer Service Unit comprises a control, instrumentation and power supply console into which are connected a wide variety of optional experimental and demonstrational modules. The range of optional modules include the three fundamental modes of heat transfer and a wide range of additional experiments in thermodynamics and thermodynamic properties of materials. Data Acquisition of the modules is also available. A number of the key optional modules are shown below.
A small-scale accessory that allows experimental investigation of linear heat conduction and the measurement of the thermal conductivity of various solid conductors and insulators. An insulated, 25mm diameter brass heated section and cooling section that may be either clamped together, or assembled with one of four insulated intermediate sections or test specimens between the interfaces.
A small-scale accessory designed to experimentally investigate the basic principles of radial heat conduction and to allow the thermal conductivity of the solid metal disc to be determined.
An accessory designed to experimentally investigate the laws of radiant heat transfer and radiant heat exchange. The application of the laws to both heat and light radiation are demonstrated using a radiant heat source and light source.
A small scale accessory that allows experimental investigation of both natural and forced convection from a heated cylinder in a cross-flow configuration. The surface temperature of a duct mounted, 10mm diameter matt black cylinder may be varied over a wide range; thereby allowing the increasing effects of radiant heat transfer to be investigated as the temperature is increased.
A small scale bench top accessory designed to measure the temperature profile and heat transfer along a horizontal extended surface (cylindrical pin). A small diameter uniform rod is heated at one end and heat flowing along the rod by conduction is lost to the surroundings by a combination of natural convection and radiation.
A small scale bench top accessory designed to experimentally investigate how measured temperatures can be influenced by the effects of radiation, temperature sensor design and surface finish. Three temperature sensors of different form and surface finish are mounted centrally in a circular stainless steel duct that is surrounded locally by an electrical heater.
A small scale bench top accessory designed to allow experimental investigation of unsteady state heat transfer by conduction and convection. Instrumented solid shapes of different materials are plunged into a controlled temperature water bath and the temperature change at the geometric centre of the shapes are recorded at regular intervals.
A compact unit designed for the direct measurement of the thermal conductivity of a wide range of liquid and gases. This is an aspect of heat transfer studies that is often overlooked but of crucial importance in the prediction of heat exchanger performance.
A small scale bench top accessory designed to allow experimental investigation of the first law of thermodynamics using the perfect gas law and the expansion of air. The unit consists of two vessels connected by a large bore pipe and valve together with an integral air pump.
A scale bench top accessory designed to allow experimental investigation of the pressure and temperature relationship of saturated steam in equilibrium with pure water. The unit allows investigation of the saturation pressure-temperature relationship of water between ambient temperature and up to 10 bar absolute pressure (179.9 °C Saturation temperature).
A bench top accessory designed to allow students to easily investigate the relative thermal conductivities of typical building materials. The H112N uses a PID controlled flat plate electrical heater and a water cooled flat plate with an integral and highly sensitive heat flowmeter.
A bench top accessory designed to allow students to experimentally investigate both free (natural) convection and forced convection. The accessory includes a small, variable velocity wind tunnel with a digital velocity meter and a central aperture.
One of a range of optional modules that is designed to be operated in conjunction with the H112 Heat Transfer Service unit . The device has no moving parts and uses direct electrical current to move heat from one face of the device to the other. Used extensively for cooling in electronics applications the unit gives a wide range of experimental investigation possibilities.
A bench top accessory designed to allow students to experimentally investigate one of the methods available to convert heat energy directly into work. The engine consists of a water cooled power cylinder and a transfer cylinder connected via a common duct. A single acting power piston and double acting displacer piston are connected to a flywheel
A bench top accessory designed to allow students to experimentally investigate convective, nucleate and film boiling. The unit consists of a high strength clear glass cylinder with instrumented electric heater element immersed in a volatile solvent that boils at low pressure.
Cross Flow Heat Exchangers are one of the most common types of heat exchanger used in countless applications such as engine radiators, air heaters, refrigeration evaporators and condensers, super-heaters and economisers.
The unit H352 is designed to enable students to investigate steady state rates of free and forced convective heat transfer at various air velocities and is supplied complete with a separate instrumentation console and a variable speed fan as standard.
The H352A Plain Tube and Tube Bundle in Cross Flow accessory includes two clear plastic plates that are designed to fit the aperture in the Cross Flow Heat Exchanger H352 duct.
The H352B Local Heat Transfer Element includes a black plastic plate with circular access hole designed to fit the aperture in the Cross Flow Heat Exchanger H352 duct.
The active element has a circular graduated flange that fits in the access hole and allows the active element to be rotated about its central axis while in the airstream.
The H352C FINNED TUBE BUNDLE IN CROSS FLOW accessory includes a clear plastic plate that is designed to fit the aperture in the Cross Flow Heat Exchanger H352 duct.
The H352D Free and Forced Convection from Flat, Pinned and Finned Plates accessory includes three plates with integral heaters and temperature sensors that are each designed to fit the aperture in the Cross Flow Heat Exchanger H352 duct.
The H352E HEAT PIPE INVESTIGATION ACCESSORY includes a drilled aluminium plate with integral heater and temperature sensor that is designed to fit the aperture in the Cross Flow Heat Exchanger H352 duct.
The H352F PITOT STATIC TRAVERSE PLATE includes a sliding plate, and pitot tube with multiple locations designed to be traversed across the duct of the H352 base unit.
The H352G WATER TO AIR HEAT EXCHANGER ACCESSORY includes a series connected copper tube bundle with flexible flow and return hoses that is designed to fit the aperture in the Cross Flow Heat Exchanger H352 duct.
The H411 is a floor-mounted unit designed to provide a visual demonstration of the flow boiling processes that can occur inside the vapour generating tubes of practical plant such as refrigeration, steam, chemical and food processing systems.
Boiling is the one of most important processes in the transfer of heat and is used in many industrial applications. For example, power generation, refrigeration, refining and nuclear engineering all depend upon an effective boiling process.
Application of fluidised beds is more widespread in industry than is usually appreciated, covering such diverse fields as power generation to food processing. The objective of the unit is to investigate the gas flow through a fixed and fluidised bed and to measure the heat transfer rate and coefficients for comparison with convective heat transfer rates in air.
A complete self contained dew point hygrometer that allows rapid and repeated measurement of the dew point of air using the classic chilled mirror method.
A self contained bench top unit comprising a number of different types of humidity meters and a small air duct with fan for variation of air velocity together with a simple air velocity meter.
Students can investigate the use of the standard wet and dry bulb whirling hygrometer in the normal way. Using the air duct the effect of air velocity on wet bulb temperature can be investigated.
Reproduces all the processes that are found in an industrial system serviced by a forced draught cooling tower.
The unit incorporates a process load, circulating pump, packed column, water distribution, volume control system and fan.
Standard instrumentation allows measurement of the air, circulating water mass flow rate and all end state temperatures using wet and dry bulb thermocouples. Evaporation rates under varying load and flow conditions can also be investigated.
Although the differences in the modes of boiling heat transfer are generally recognised many students are not aware that two distinct modes of condensation can occur. The H911 is a self-contained bench top unit that allows the investigation of heat fluxes and heat transfer coefficients during the condensation of steam.
The H931 is self contained and designed for bench top use having it own steam generator and condenser tubes housed in a thick walled glass cylinder.
The unit enables students to study the detailed performance of concentric tube heat exchangers of the type most commonly used in industry. The unit includes all the necessary temperature and flow measurements and is suitable for both basic and advance studies.
The metal and two fluid stream temperature are measured at inlet and outlet allowing the relationship Nu = k ReaPrb to be developed by evaluating k, a and b.
Heat transfer is allowed to take place between oil and water in a concentric tube. Oil flowing in the inner tube is supplied by an international oil company and has a kinematic viscosity at 70°C, of approximately 8x10-6 m2 s-1.
The measurement of temperature is fundamental to almost every branch of engineering and science.
The H981 enables students to investigate the many different methods of measuring temperature and to determine the advantages and disadvantages of the various sensor and indicator types.