The FRICTION range enables clear and comprehensive learning of FRICTION and TRIBOLOGY covering a variety of theories and topics. An understanding of the way in which Friction acts is  fundamental when studying the application of loads on a variety of surfaces. The FRICTION range forms a comprehensive set of equipment, from simple inclined planes to complete Tribology Trainers suitable for demonstration and experimental work.

HFN1 Friction on an Inclined Plane

The compact bench top unit has a sturdy base plate, non-slip feet and centravertical pillar.

HFN1c Tray mounted on bearing for HFN1

HFN1c Tray mounted on bearing for HFN1 

HFN3 Clutch Plate Friction Apparatus

The wall mounted apparatus comprises a lower stationary plate attached to a sturdy wall mounting bracket. On top of this stationary plate sits an upper plate whose shaft rotates in ball bearings. Sandwiched between the lower and upper plates are three interchangeable friction discs of different diameters. Each one sits onto location pins in the lower plate. The minimum force on the friction disc is the self weight of the upper plate, but the contact pressure can be increased by adding weights to the upper plate. Pure torque is applied to the upper plate through two loaded cords and pulleys. The cords wrap around a groove in the upper plate. A set of calibrated weights and load hangers are supplied which enable the loading force to be varied and applied torque to be adjusted also.

HFN4 Pivot Friction Apparatus

The wall mounted apparatus consists of a rotating circular table on a vertical shaft at the bottom of which a variety of end pivots can be attached. The table rotates on an interchangeable seating selected to match the conical angle of the pivot. Pure torsion is applied to the table by a pair of cords diametrically opposite on its periphery and passing over pulleys to load hangers. The standard apparatus is supplied with four sets of pivots with vertex angles of 60° 90° 120°and 180° (flat). The seating is in mild steel and the pivot is in brass. In addition a ball thrust bearing is included to show the difference in performance. Students can study the effect of the conical angle of a pivot bearing and obtain the coefficients of friction for bearings of different design. All load hangers and calibrated weights are supplied.

HFN6 Bearing Friction Apparatus

This experiment provides an opportunity to study the efficiency of journal bearing friction over a range of commonly used materials. The wall mounted apparatus consists of a flywheel on a horizontal shaft carried in a pair of similar bearings, the flywheel being used to even out small variations in friction. The shaft is of mild steel, and interchangeable bearings in a range of materials are provided. For comparison a ball or roller bearing is available to demonstrate the advantages of rolling rather than sliding contact. Torque is applied by a loaded cord wrapped round the flywheel shaft. A set of calibrated weights and load hanger is supplied for loading the flywheel.

HFN8 Rope Belt Friction Apparatus

The apparatus consists of a wall mounted fixed pulley with a loaded belt. Four different pulleys are supplied with different vee groove angles; flat rim, 120°, 90°, and 60°.

A load is added to one of two hangers until the rope just begins to slide. This is the datum condition. Loads are now added to both sides of the rope to cause very slow sliding of the rope. This enables the coefficient of friction to be obtained.

HFN9 Friction of Belts Apparatus

The apparatus consists of a wall mounted pulley with a loaded belt. The pulley is made of aluminium and has two machined grooves to suit a flat and a vee belt. Each belt fits into its respective groove during testing. For a given belt tension and angle of lap, a turning moment can be applied by adding weights to the pulley drive hanger. The student determines the torque which just causes the pulley to turn, and so find the ratio of the belt tensions. This enables the belt tension equation to be verified and the coefficient of friction to be determined. The angle of lap can be easily varied by placing one end of each belt at different angular positions on the wall bracket. A removable pin and bar are used to enable the various angular positions to be achieved. A set of calibrated weights and hangers is supplied to achieve the loadings desired.

HFN11 Brake Drum Friction Apparatus

Students can compare the braking effect of a leading and trailing shoe with this apparatus. In addition the coefficient of friction for the brake lining on the drum can be evaluated. At one end of a baseplate is a pair of bearing brackets carrying an aluminum alloy brake drum on a shaft. The bracket on the open side of the drum provides the bottom pivot for a brake shoe and another for a 1 : 1 lever actuator at the top of the shoe. A cord from this lever passes over a pulley at the other end of the baseplate and then down to a load hanger. This creates a braking load to the system. A groove on the outside of the brake drum has an attached cord which may be wound round in either direction, thus providing a rotational torque. The cord passes over a second pulley at the far end and then down to another load hanger. To simulate a trailing shoe the cord comes from the top of the drum; for a leading shoe it comes from the underneath.

HFN15 Slipping Friction Apparatus

With this apparatus students can verify the expression for periodic time of an oscillatory motion by determining a number of parameters. This apparatus continuously subjects two surfaces to a condition of slipping friction. The apparatus involves a clever application of simple harmonic motion as a test rod supported on two contra-rotating grooved wheels oscillates longitudinally. A variable speed electric motor drives the grooved wheels. A removable belt guard covers the drive mechanism. A set of test specimens is supplied in different materials, diameters and solid or hollow section. The main variables are the coefficient of friction, the size and the weight of the specimens. The whole apparatus is built on a heavy base.

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